ANSWER Chloroquine-resistant malaria is exactly what it sounds like—particular types of malaria which are not cured by treatment with chloroquine. Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. Chloroquine dose during pregnancy Plaquenil mot malaria Of drug resistance including its determinants, current status in diverse geographical areas, molecular markers and their implications to limit the advent, spread and intensification of drug resistant malaria. Key words Chloroquine-resistant malaria – molecular markers – pfmdr-1 polymorphism – sulphadoxine & pyrimethamine During the past year, confirmed chloroquine-resistant infections have been described from specific areas in Zambia 3 and Sudan 4; previously, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Madagascar, and the Comoros Islands were acknowledged to have transmission of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Read the original article in full on AAS Open Research Prevalence of chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance alleles in Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from three areas in Ghana Since then, resistance has spread rapidly (since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites), and now chloroquine resistant are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s. Chloroquine resistance areas Drug resistance in malaria - World Health Organization, Update Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum -- Africa Hydroxychloroquine sulfate mechanism of action Chloroquine is an anti-malaria medicine that works by interfering with the growth of parasites in the red blood cells of the human body. Parasites that cause malaria typically enter the body through the bite of a mosquito. Malaria is common in areas such as Africa, South America, and Southern Asia. Chloroquine Uses, Side Effects & Warnings -. Prevalence of chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance.. CDC - Malaria - Travelers - Malaria Information and.. These interactive maps, based on the WHO global antimalarial drug efficacy database, provide a visual overview of therapeutic efficacy study results, according to malaria species, antimalarial treatment, year and geographic location. Chloroquine is used for the prophylaxis of malaria in areas of the world where the risk of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria is still low. It is also used with proguanil when chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria is present. However, this combination may not be ideal. Chloroquine resistance is widespread. Chloroquine should not be used for treatment of P. falciparum infections from areas of chloroquine resistance or malaria occurring in patients where chloroquine prophylaxis has failed. Patients infected with a resistant strains of plasmodia should be treated with another antimalarial drug.