Pattern of Retinopathy: Although the locus of toxic damage is parafoveal in many eyes, Asian patients often show an extramacular pattern of damage. Dose: We recommend a maximum daily HCQ use of 5.0 mg/kg real weight, which correlates better with risk than ideal weight. Plaquenil and vascular system Chloroquine people also search for Plaquenil mechanism of action in lupus Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy-Fundus Autofluorescence. Fundus autofluorescence image of a 46-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus who had taken chloroquine for 17 years at a dosage of 500 mg/d. Based on her actual body weight, which was ideal, she had been overdosed at 8.8 mg/kg/d and had received a cumulative dose of 3102 g of hydroxychloroquine. Fundus autofluorescence FAF is a non-invasive retinal imaging modality used in clinical practice to provide a density map of lipofuscin, the predominant ocular fluorophore, in the retinal pigment epithelium. Multiple commercially available imaging systems, including the fundus camera, the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and the ultra-widefield imaging device, are available to the. Fundus autofluorescence FAF is a non-invasive imaging technique that detects fluorophores, naturally occurring molecules that absorb and emit light of specified wavelengths 1. To produce autofluorescence, a fluorophore absorbs a photon of the excitation wavelength, which elevates an electron to an excited, high energy state. Risk of Toxicity: The risk of toxicity is dependent on daily dose and duration of use. There are no similar demographic data for CQ, but dose comparisons in older literature suggest using 2.3 mg/kg real weight. Fundus autofluorescence hydroxychloroquine Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Toxicity and., Clinical applications of fundus autofluorescence in retinal. Saltwater fish chloroquine compatible with acrifulvinePlaquenil for urticaria Autofluorescence imaging allows for earlier diagnosis of retinal dystrophies It provides tangible, visible evidence of disease progression, where before there was only guesswork. Primary Care. Autofluorescence imaging allows for earlier diagnosis of.. Clinical applications of fundus autofluorescence in.. Eye screening for patients taking hydroxychloroquine.. Fundus autofluorescence may also be useful to determine whether patients with macular pigmentary change may continue using hydroxychloroquine because the pigmentary change may be secondary to other nonrelated causes. Fundus autofluorescence patterns in various stages of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Classic bull’s-eye maculopathy appearance A. As the RPE atrophies, the FAF intensity in the pericentral macula changes to a mottled, or speckled appearance B, and eventually coalesces into dark areas of absence of FAF signal once the cells have died C. Ivocal signs of chloroquine maculopathy bilateral peri-central scotoma in the visual fields, structural alterations of the macula in the optical coherence tomography but normal or atypical findings as to fundus autofluorescence imaging. Results In all patients, optical coherence tomography showed perifoveal thinning and subtle alterations of the outer retinal layers. In one patient, the.